The astronomers of Babylon
The astronomers had many different responsibilities. They recorded their observations about the daily, monthly and yearly position of the stars and planets. They advised the king about how their observations affected the calendar. And they advised the king about how omens seen on earth or in the skies might effect future events.
Over hundreds of years, the astronomers kept records and compiled archives of information about stars, planets and omens. The archives could be consulted by later astronomers to help them explain and interpret their own observations of the world around them.